Radiological Impacts and Radon Exhalation Rate of Naturally occurring Radioactive younger Granites of Gabal El Faliq and Gabal El Magal El Harami areas, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

G. M. Saleh, S. F. Hassan, M. A. M. Mahmoud, M. A. Rashed

Abstract


Gabal El Faliq and Gabal El Magal El Harami areas are located in the southern part of the Eastern desert, Egypt. They have ultrmafic rocks, ophiolitic mélange, older granitoids, and younger granites, dissected by various post basic dykes and quartz veins. Alkali feldspar granite and peraluminous granite are represented the younger granites in the two studied areas respectively. Uranophane and meta-autunite are recorded in the two studied areas as the secondary uranium minerals, which occur as micro-fractures infilling or coating on joint surfaces. The studied granites are uraniferous granites, which were considered as favorable environments for uranium depositions.

The samples collected from the two studied granites were excavated to some radiometric measurements such as, radioelement concentration measurements, specific activity, surface radon exhalation rate, and finally radiation hazard indices calculations. The obtained results for the equivalent radium content are ranged from 679.25 to 3087.5 Bqkg-1 for Gable El Faliq area, while they are ranged from 555.75 to 1729 Bqkg-1 for Gable El Magal El Harami area. The surface exhalation rates are ranged from1.23 x 10-5±1.14x10-6 to 1.28 x 10-4± 5.44x 10-6Bqm-2 day-1 for Gable El Faliq area, while they are ranged from 1.02x 10-5± 8.35x 10-7 to 4.63 x 10-5± 2.39 x10-6 Bqm-2day-1 for Gable El Magal El Harami area. The radon exhalation rate measured using can technique shows that Gable El Faliq area is approximately twice than the value measured for Gable El Magal El Harami area.

In the two studied areas, the calculated values for the radiation impact factors; exposure dose, annual effective dose rates, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices and radioactivity level index are exceed the permissible values recommended by UNSCEARS.

Keywords


Gabal; Younger granites; Uranophane; Meta-autunite; Radon activity; Exhalation rate; Egypt

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arafa, W., 2004. Specific activity and hazards of granite samples collected from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, J. Environ. Radioact,vol (75) p. 315–327.

Beack, H, L., 1972. The physics of environmental radiation field. Natural radiation environment II, CONF-720802 p2- Proceeding of the second International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment.

Beretka, I., and Mathaw, P. I., 1985. Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products, Health physics 48, 87-95.

Boyle, R. W., 1982. Geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium deposits. Develop. Economic, Geol., 16, El Sevier, Amsterdam, 489pp.

Cambon, A. R., 1999. Uranium resource development in the Eastern Desert of Egypt; Mapping and prospecting in granitic formation. IAEA/RU8342, 61 pp.

Chau, N. D., Chrusciel, E., Prokolski, L., 2005. Factors controlling measurements of radon mass exhalation rate. J Environ Radioact 82:p. 363-369.

Chen, C., Weng, P and. Chu,T., 1993. Radon exhalation rate from various building materials, Health Phys.,vol ( 64): p. 613–619.

Clark, S. P. Jr., Peterman, J. E. and Heier, K. S., 1966. Abundance of U, Th and K. In Clark, S. P. Jr., (ed.), Handbook of physical constants: Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. v. 97, 587pp.

Cuney, M., 1984. Les methods de prospection de l'uranium, Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD, Paris. p. 277 - 292.

Cuney, M., LeFort, P., Wangeg, Z., 1987. Geology of Granites and their Metallogenic Relations. Science Press, Moscow, p. 852-873.

Darnely, A. G., 1982. "Hot granites" some general remarks. In: Maurice, Y. J. (ed.), Uranium in granites. Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper No. 81–23, p.1–10.

Dixon, D.W., Gooding, T.D., McCready-Shea, S., 1996. Evaluation and significance of radon exposures in British workplace buildings. Environ. Int. 22, S1079–S1082.

El Gaby, S., 1975. Petrochemistry and geochemistry of some granites from Egypt. NeuesJrab. Mineral.Abh. 124, p.147-189.

El Galy, M. M., El Mezayn, A. M., Said, A. F., El Mowafy, A. A., Mohamed, M. S., 2008. Distribution and environmental impacts of some radionuclides in sedimentary rocks at Wadi Naseib area, southwest Sinai, Egypt” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity.

El Reedy, M. W., 1973. Age and origin of some radioactive Egyptian granites and pegmatites. Unpubl. Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo Univ., Egypt.

European Commission, 1999. Radiation Protection Unit, Radiological Protection Principles concerning the nature radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection, 112.

Finch, R. J., and Ewing, R.C., 1992. The corrosion of uraninte under oxidizing conditions, journal of Nucleur Materials 190, p.133-156.

Gharib, M. E, Saleh, G. M, Attia, G. M, Abu Zeid, E, K, and Mahmoud, G. B., 2011. Mineralogical and Geochemical Studies on the leucogranites at Gabal El Magal El Harami area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. (in press).

Gorman, D. H., and Nuffield, E. W., 1955. Studies of radioactive compound: uranophane and beta-uranophane. Am. Min., 40, p. 634 - 645.

Grasety, R. I., Carson, J. M., Charbonneau, B. W., Holman, P. B., 1984. Natural background radiation in Canada. Geol. Surv. Can. Bull. 360pp.

Hafez, A. F., Hussein, A.S., Rasheed, N. M., 2001. A study of radon and thoron release from Egyptian building materials using polymeric nuclear track detectors. ApplRadiatIsot 54:p. 291-298.

Hashad, A. H, and El Reedy, M. W., 1981: Geochronological and strontium isotope study of the psammitic gneiss of Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: J. Geol.25, No. 1-2.

Hassan, S. F., 2000. Measurements of Radon-Gas Concentrations and Radon-Progeny in Uranium Exploration Galleries Allouga -Sinai” M.S.c. Thesis, Faculty of Science,Cairo University, Cairo,Egypt, 218pp.

Hassan, S. F., 2011. Radon emanation and radiation hazards indices for sedimentary rocks of Wadi Abu-Mogherat area, Sinai, Egypt. Journal of the Faculty of education, Ain Shams University.

Heinrich, E. W., 1958. Mineralogy and geology of radioactive raw materials. McGraw-Hill Book Company, I N C., New york,Toronto,London.

Hussien, A. A., Ali, M. M. and El Rally., M. F., 1982. A proposed new classification of the granites of Egypt. Jour. Volcan. And Geother. Research, 14, p.187-198.

Hume, W. F., 1935. Geology of Egypt, Vol. II, Part II. The later plutonic and intrusive rocks. Geol. Surv. Egypt. Government press, Cairo, p. 301– 688.

IAEA-TECDOC-1363, 2005. Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray Spectrometry.

ICRP, 1994a. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Protection against 222Rn at Home and at Work. ICRP Publication 65, Oxford.

ICRU, 1980. Radiation Quantities and Units. Report 33, Washington, DC.

ICRU, 1994. Gamma ray Spectrometry in the Environment, ICRU Report 53, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements.Bethsda, USA.

IAEA, 1979. Gamma-ray Surveys in Uranium Exploration. Technical Reports Series No. 186, Vienna, 89 pp.

Iwaoka, K., K. Tagami and H. Yonehara, 2009. Measurement of natural radioactive nuclide Concentrations in various metal ores used as industrial raw materials in Japan and estimation of dose received by workers handling them. J. Enviorn. Radioactiv., 100: 993-997. DOI:10.1016/J.Jenvrad.2009.08.004.

Khan, A. J. and Parasad, R. K., 1992. Measurement of Radon exhalation rate from some building materials. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas., 20, p. 609 - 610.

Khan, M. S., Zubair, M., Verma, D., Naqvi, A. A.,Azam, A., Bhardwaj, M. K., 2011a. The study of indoor radon in the urban dwellings using plastic track detectors. environ earth sci63:p. 279-282.

Krieger, R., 1981. Radioactive of Construction Materials. Betonwerk Fertigteil Tech - 47, 468.

Luigi, B., B. Maurizio, M. Giorgio, M. Rento and R. Serena, 2000. Radioactivity in raw materials and end products in the Italian Ceramics industry Environ. Radioactiv., 47: 171-181. DOI:10.1016/s0265-931x (99)00026-0.

Matolin, M., 1991. Construction and use of spectrometric calibration pads laboratory γ-ray spectrometry, NMA, Egypt. A Report to the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt.Project EGY/4/030-03, IAEA.

Nabil, M. H., Masahiro, H., Tetsuo, I., Atsuyuki, S., Sarata, K. S., Shinji, T. and Masahiro, F., 2009. Radon Migration Process and Its Influence Factors; Review Jpn. J. Health Phys., 44 (2), p. 218 -231.

NEA-OECD, 1979. Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts. OECD, Paris.

Nininger, R. D., 1954. Minerals for atomic energy, 1st edition. D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., Princeton, New Jersey.

Rehman, F. U., Al Jarallah, M. I., Musazay, M. S. and Abu Jarad, F., 2003. :Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements, Appl Radiat. Isot., vol (59) 353–358.

Righi, S., and Bruzzi, L., 2006. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation in building materials used in Italian dwellings. J Environ Radioact 88:p. 158-170.

Risica, S., 2001. Italian basic safety standards legislation. J. Radiol. Prot. 21, 81.

Saleh, G. M., 2011. Geology of G. El Faliq, G. El Magal El Harami and Wadi Nugrus area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt.

Saleh, G. M., Mostafa, D. A., Darwish, M. E. and Salem, I. A., 2014. Gabal El Faliq Granitoid rocks of the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemical constraints, mineralization and Spectrometric Prospecting. Standard Global Journal of Geology and Explorational Research vol 1(1): p. 9 - 26.

Speer, J., Solberg, T., Becker, S., 1981. Petrography of uranium bearing minerals of the Liberty Hill Pluton. South Carolina: Phase assemblages and migration of uranium in granitoid rocks. Econ. Geol., p. 110-120.

SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute), 1999. Radon legislation and national guidelines. Åkerblom, G., ISSN: 0282-4434.

Stuckless, J. S., Nkomo, I. T., Winner, D. B. and Van Trump, G., 1984. Geochemistry and uranium favourability of the post-orogenic granites of the north-eastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Bull. Fac. Earth Sci., King Abdel Aziz Univ., no.6, p.195 - 209.

Tufail, M., Ahmed, M., Shaib, S., Safdar, A., Mirza, N. M., Ahmed, N., Zafar, M. S., Zafar, F. I., 1992. Investigation of gamma-ray activity and radiological hazards of the bricks fabricated around Lahor, Pakistan. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 34, p. 216 – 220.

UNSCEAR, 1993. Sources and effects of Ionizing Radiation” UN. New York.

UNSCEAR, 1988. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, Sources, effects and risk of ionizing radiation, United Nations, New York.

UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR Report on the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, Vol. 1, Sources.

USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), 2004. A Citizen’s Guide to Radon: the Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon. 402-K-02-006.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Academic and Scientific Research Organization

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
 

ONLINE ISSN:2409-4730